Jasper Morris MW, Burgundy Director of Berry Bros & Rudd, and the author of ‘Inside Burgundy’, is well known for his expertise and passion for all things Burgundian. On his recent visit to Asia, we explored the three Ws in Côte d’Or— where, when and who —by tasting three pairs of wines, each pair having two Ws in common and one different. A similar exercise was conducted just a week later at the Altaya Wines annual ‘Passion for Pinot’ seminar, this time with owners from four family-run Burgundy wineries sharing their insights into the three Ws through 12 wines.
Burgundy wine is classified into four levels of quality: Regional appellations make up 52% of the total production, Village appellations 36% and Premier Crus (1er Crus) 10%. The remaining 2% belongs to the Grand Crus. The latter two levels are based on climats, small, precisely delineated plots of land that enjoy specific geological and climatic conditions. Côte d’Or, a long and narrow strip, is the heartland of Burgundy where the greatest wines are made. It is split into Côte de Nuits in the north and Côte de Beaune in the south. Some 30 of the 44 Village appellations and hundreds of climats are found here, as well as 28 of the 33 Grand Crus AOC.
The soil in Côte d’Or is predominantly limestone and marl, but each village has a different combination. Pascal and Charles Lachaux, a father and son team from Domaine Arnounx-Lachaux, explained that the different characters of their three reds—all from the same vintage of 2011 and made exactly the same way but from different villages—are due to the soil and location. Chambolle Musigny, further north with white soil, produces lighter and softer wine, while Vosne Romanée’s darker soil gives more structure and power to the wine. The third wine is from Nuits St Georges but it is not in the typical rich style thanks to the very white soil that results in smaller grapes. The wine is concentrated yet elegant.
Another interesting comparison was the two 1er Crus from Domaine Faiveley. Both were from Gevrey Chambertin, vintage 2012 and the same winemaking method. The ‘Clos des Issarts’ has a marked mineral palate with a smooth finish while the ‘Combe aux Moines’ is more tannic and muscular. The two climats are less than two kilometres from each other!
‘When’ refers to vintage. According to Jasper, Burgundy is a crossroads for weather and is often at the cusp of two weather systems. No wonder every vintage in Burgundy is different. Frost and hail reduce crop yield while rain during ripening season affects quality. A hot summer gives powerful wine but too hot may result in imbalance between acidity and alcohol. A cool year, on the other hand, may produce wine that is too thin although diligent winemakers can still make some very elegant wine. Jasper’s philosophy is that vintages should not be classified as good or bad, but rather, an indication of when to drink the wine.
With Jasper, we compared the 2003 and 2000 reds from Domaine Jean Grivot Nuits-Georges 1er Cru ‘Roncieres’. The 2003 was rich and concentrated reflecting the particularly hot year, but it was still youthful with ripe dark fruits at 12 years of age. The 2000, although only three years older than the 2003, was much more advanced with dried fruits and forest floor bouquets. It was a more difficult vintage with too much rainfall close to harvest. Jasper described 2000 as a cheerful vintage for wine lovers—while it is not a long-lived vintage, the price is reasonable and the wine absolutely enjoyable now. The 2003, in contrast, still has at least another five years before its peak.
The notion of terroir is the interaction between soil, climate and people, so obviously winemakers play an important role in shaping the style of the wine. This was well demonstrated by BBR’s pair of 2008 Vosne-Romanèe 1er Cru ‘Les Beaux Monts’, Domaine Bruno Clavelier and Domaine Jean Grivot. The grapes of the first wine were picked slightly early and vinified with some stems. The wine displayed vibrant red fruits and floral notes yet with a fairly dense structure. The second wine had no stems used during winemaking but was aged in barrels for 18 months. It showed riper red fruits but with a leaner palate.
We also contrasted three reds at the Passion for Pinot session: Domaine de Montille Volnay 1er Cru ‘Les Mitans’ 2009, Domaine Faiveley Pommard 1er Cru ‘Les Rugiens’ 2012 and Bonneau du Martray Corton 2011. Although they were from different vineyards and vintages, we could still see the fingerprints of the different winemakers in the wine by the way they managed tannin and extraction.
|Domaine de Montille, Domaine Faiveley, Bonneau du Martray|
Louis Jadot 2013 en primeur organised by ASC Fine Wines. Louis Jadot is one of the larger producers in Burgundy with vineyards in nearly every Côte d’Or village. Thibault Gegey, its Deputy General Manager, explained that 2013 was a difficult year. Spring was wet and cold, resulting in poor flowering and thus a smaller crop. Summer finally arrived in June but a hailstorm in July devastated some vineyards between Meursault and Aloxe-Corton. September, the most important month for grape ripening, was excellent and balanced fruit with good potential began to develop, albeit in a much smaller crop. Unfortunately though, the weather turned progressively wetter and colder so those grapes harvested later had more rot than those harvested earlier.
Armed with knowledge of the three Ws, I would certainly not dismiss the 2013 vintage. It doesn’t taste like 2010 and probably doesn’t have the same ageing potential, but so what? I love its elegance and leaner style, and I’m sure I’m not the only one. When we sip a Burgundy, we know we are tasting the dedication of vinegrowers and wienmakers who care about their climats, and try to make the best possible Chardonnays and Pinot Noirs in every weather condition. Enjoy!
Domaine Bruno Clavelier, Domaine Jean Grivot are available from Berry Bros & Rudd.
Domaine Arnounx-Lachaux, Domaine Faiveley, Domaine de Montille, Bonneau du Martray are available from Altaya Wines.
Louis Jadot is available from ASC Fine Wines